History of C Language


C Language is a structured programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 at Bell Laboratories (AT and T bell Labs).

It is a machine independent language that enables the programmer to focus more on programming aspects rather than wasting time in looking for the low-level (i.e hardware) details of the machine.

C Language is basically derived from ALGOL, which was widely used in European countries. The introduction of ALGOL during 1960's have created a way for development of structured programming concepts.

Corrado Bohm and Guisseppe Jacopini were the two scientists who initiated the development work in 1966 by publishing a paper that defined the concept of structured programming. This concept was later popularized by Edge Dijkstra who brought it to the notice of computer science community.

In 1967, Basic Combined Programming Language(BCPL) was introduced by Martin Richards which was then followed by B developed by Ken Thompson in 1970.

Finally in 1972, C Programming Language was introduced which incorporated concepts of ALGOL, BCPL and B in addition to concepts of data types.

In 1978, C Language was publicized in a book written by Brian W.Kernighan abd Dennis Ritchie.

In 1983, a separate standard for C was proposed by ANSI (American Nation Standards Institute) which was later approved in 1989. This version of C Language was knwown as C89.

In 1990, the ISO (International Standard Organization) adopted ANSI C .

In 1995, i.e., five years later, few changes were made to the standard, which resulted in a newer version popularly known as C95.

In 1999, C95 was again upgraded with much more significant changes resulting in C99 standard. The C99 is tha latest standard available.

The taxonomy of C Language is shown in the following figure.

explain briefly about the history of c language
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